The color spectrum and the color circle are usually divided into two parts - warm colors and cold colors: from green to red are warm, from blue to purple are cold. Green is considered by some to be a cold color, others allocate a special concept for it - neutral.
The easiest way to illustrate the effect of changing color temperature is on the three most important colors for us, yellow, green and red.
For a warm yellow color, the temperature can be increased only by adding shades with lower energy, for example, red, as in the table.
Warmer than the base yellow include, for example, honey yellow, the color of a dandelion or sunflower.
To switch to colder tones, add green or blue.
Red is energetically warmer than yellow, so it is more difficult to control its temperature. The gradation of energy of different shades of red is perceived most difficult.
To make the red color colder, you have to shift its background towards purple with the addition of blue and gray.
The insulation of red is much easier to perform with the addition of yellow.
The green color changes in terms of temperature saturation much easier, since it can be obtained by mixing two components with different temperatures - yellow and blue. The procedure for giving the necessary energy is actually reduced to strengthening one of the color components.
In addition, green is very dependent on saturation. The higher the saturation, the warmer the color field.
In the modern world, selling things has become an art with fine lines, serious research and psychological techniques. Work on the visual perception of the product is defined as the most important criterion for the successful sale of products. 93% of buyers are guided by the appearance of the packaging if they purchase the product for the first time. 85% of people take those packages from the shelves, the color of which corresponds to the product and they like it personally.
Studies have shown that color solutions are not universal. That is, the same shade causes a different associative series in different peoples. In particular, the following color characteristics are true for residents of North America:
yellow – youth, optimism. Optimal use: the color of the showcases, to attract attention;
red – energy. It is used for total sales;
blue – trust, security. In this region, banks and large offices are painted with it;
green – relaxing color. Associations with wealth make him in demand in business;
black – glossy, powerful. Optimal use: promotion of luxury goods;
orange – aggression. Convenient as a call to action;
pink – romance, femininity. Used as a way to attract clients;
purple – peace, pacification. The use of purple is justified in the industry of anti-aging beauty products.
Cold makeup is ideal for girls with the color type "Winter" and "Summer". Possible eye shadow options are gray, purple, blue. To emphasize the lips, a cold red lipstick color and shades such as muted nude or icy pink are suitable. The selection of cosmetics depends on what impression you want to make: bright or calm restrained.
The tables well illustrate the conventionality of the concept of color temperature. A mixture of subtones and peculiarities of perception of an individual, give a different visual perception of colors (colder / warmer).
You can determine the temperature of a color by decomposing it into its components. To change the temperature, add unambiguously warm or cold semitones.
The recognition of shades by the human eye depends on the wavelength of the spectrum, so:
long waves increase the heartbeat, blood rushes to the extremities, warmth is felt — the color is regarded as warm;
a short wave makes you feel relaxed, the processes in the body slow down, there is a feeling of coolness — the color is perceived as cold.
The relativity in the temperature difference of shades is associated with the small experience of observing absolutely pure spectral colors by most people (pure color is rare in nature).
Neighboring colors mutually affect the temperature. So, burgundy in tandem with sepia will give a feeling of warm, with caramel – cold color. Understanding of this phenomenon should be applied in interior solutions, this will allow harmony to be brought into any space.
Reference books containing the names of more than a thousand colors and shades have been published on the Internet. Simple online programs allow the user of the service to independently set the color according to certain parameters. The name is determined automatically. Such catalogs are in demand by people of different professions and are actively used by them.
With the determination of the temperature of the shade, difficulties often arise. Concepts such as cold red or warm red are firmly in use, but not everyone understands the same thing by them. Firstly, the relative temperature of the shade is often confused with the temperature of the color. Secondly, subjectivity: there is no precise definition of where red begins and ends. Meanwhile, the ability to determine cold and warm tones is important when working with a person's appearance, for example, determining color types and selecting individual color palettes. This skill can be developed with the help of experience and understanding of a simple principle.
Any color other than orange can have warm, neutral and cold shades. How to determine the temperature of a shade using a color wheel?
We take any color and define its boundaries. Then we find the approximate center. The shades of color lying on the orange side will be warm. From the side of the blue – cold. Intermediate colors without admixtures of warm or cold are called local or neutral.
Let's take green for a start. It is formed by warm yellow and cold blue colors. A cold or warm green shade is obtained due to the preponderance of blue or yellow. Moving up to yellow, we will get warm shades, down to blue - cold.
The same principle applies when determining other colors, for example, yellow. Approaching orange, the color is getting warmer. Going down, yellow acquires a greenish, lemon, cold shade. Neutral yellow has no obvious greenish or orange tint.
The orange color stands out especially.This is the warmest and only color that does not have cold shades. In addition, it spreads warmth to the surroundings. The nearest colors: yellow-orange and orange-red are also exceptionally warm.
Red. The same principle applies here: the upper shades, highlighted in yellow, are warm, the lower ones from the purple side are cold.The purple color itself is neutral, like green, it is formed by a mixture of cold and warm colors. A large proportion of red makes it warm, blue makes it cold. From the point of view of use in warm or cold scales, this is a rather complex color. The differences between warm purple and cold red or cold purple from purple are difficult to grasp. It is difficult to distinguish a local magenta color.
The same difficulties with defining boundaries apply to purple. When you add red color, it gets warmer, blue gets colder.The difficulty of determining the temperature of a shade is that there are no precise and generally accepted distinctions, where the warm shade of one color ends and the cold shade of another begins. There are no clear boundaries for local shades either. Usually, when we are dealing with the main colors: red, blue, yellow and green, this division is intuitive, experience helps to distinguish other colors.
Blue is the coldest color of the entire palette, it is the antipode of orange. But if orange makes neighboring colors exceptionally warm and has no cold shades, then blue does not have similar properties. Conditionally, you can select a warm blue color. Some believe that blue by definition cannot be warm, but a warm range of colors can contain blue, if you choose its shade correctly. Its cold, they are also local shades are located in the middle, and warm at the edges: on the one hand, blue is highlighted yellow, on the other red. These shades will be warmer relative to the cold blue.
Blue-green colors stand out separately. Here, warmth-coldness is conditional and depends on whether to separate them into a separate group with their local color or consider them as part of green and blue shades.
If we consider turquoise as the local color, then the tones located on the green side will be warm, on the blue side they will be cold.
If we consider blue as the local color, the same tones will be warm. Here, lightness and saturation are involved in determining the color.
So, we have come to the effect of lightness and saturation on the color temperature. Up to this point, we have considered the properties of warmth-coldness on pure colors and one parameter - tone. But this is not enough, since most often you have to deal with complex colors in which there is an admixture of achromatic, that is, take into account all three parameters. The lightness changes with the addition of white and black, the saturation changes with the addition of gray.